Borno state police commissioner Damian Chukwu said the bombers had targeted mourners at a funeral ceremony in the suburb of Molai Kolemari on Tuesday night.
Most of the victims were from a vigilante group called the Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF), which assists the military in the hunt for Boko Haram.
“In all, 12 Civilian JTF members lost their lives with seven villagers and the four female suicide bombers, bringing the total number of deaths to 23,” said Chukwu.
Another 23 people were injured and taken to hospital for treatment, he added in a statement on Wednesday night.
Maiduguri is the capital of Borno state and has been repeatedly attacked during the eight-year Boko Haram insurgency, which has killed at least 20,000.
Women and young girls have increasingly been deployed as suicide bombers to hit crowded civilian “soft” targets such as mosques, markets and bus stations.